On July 15, 1928, several kilometers to the north of Pyshminsky Highway,
the first stone of Ural Heavy Machine Building Plant (UZTM or Uralmash) was
laid. The ambitious Ural-Kuzbassky Project, which was born during the Stalin’s
first “five-year plan,” entailed the construction of several metal-making enterprises in Ural at once, powered by Kuznetsk mineral fuel; meanwhile, the plant capable of producing the newest metal-making equipment was supposed to become
the focal point.
Each industrial object was assumed to be provided with all necessary social
infrastructure. The Uralmash “socialist town” is one of the most brilliant examples
of that.
The factory facilities and residential development were envisaged to be separated from each other by a street highway (now that’s Mashinostroiteley Street
with a green space). Taking into account the Western direction of the winds in this
location, specialists have situated the village to the north of the plant, behind
the green “wall.”
The heart of the Uralmash socialist town is 1 Pyatiletki (First Five-Year Plan)
Square, from where the socialist town’s central streets, like rays, split off in all
directions. This is where all of the main buildings of the socialist town were concentrated: the plant checkpoints, the plant management facilities, laboratory,
the factory apprenticeship school, the technical training building, and Madrid
Hotel. Almost all of the listed buildings, aside from the hotel, were built in the style
of constructivism. We hold a debt to a group of young architects for their erection under the leadership of Peter Oransky (the design department of Uralmashstroy
was jokingly named the “kindergarten”).
The construction process of the key constructions of the socialist town coincided with a period of heated architectural discussions and was distinguished with
its particular intensity – most of the key constructions took about two or three
years to complete. For this reason, the original building project often times did
not correspond to the end results: in some cases, the image of the building was
changed while other times its function changed.
Thus, the famous residential complex, the so-called “saw house”, acquired
a final image as a result of Peter Oransky’s sudden proposal to build six stone residential buildings at a right angle to each other.
The famous White Tower’s project had to undergo significant changes
as well. This true symbol of Uralmash and all constructivist Sverdlovsk was erected according to a project by Moisei Reischer, under the immediate participate
of the same Oransky.
The most inspiring example, however, was the UZTM Culture Palace, originally
designed as a factory factory-kitchen. The story of its construction, which Valery
Paramonov, Peter Oransky, and Bela Shefler subsequently took part in, reflects
the history of the entire area’s construction – complex and contradictory.
One block’s development whose end touches 1 Pyatiletki Square goes back
to the second half of the 1930s (formed by Kultury – Krasnykh Partizan, Bannikova
– Ordzhonikidze, and 1 Pyatiletki Square). The “upgraded” buildings with spacious,
comfortable apartments, luxurious finishing, and decorated facades have been
attributed a well-directed nickname by the people – the Noble Nest.
The main composition axis of the socialist town, Ordzhonikizde Avenue (formerly, Stalina Street), continues past the plant checkpoints into walking alleys.
A monument to the legendary people’s heavy machine building commissar
– Comrade Sergo (Ordzhonikidze) performed by sculptor Georgy Nerod is oriented along the prospect’s axis. Before the World War II, a marble cube was located
there with the remains of the Uralmash plant’s founders – head of construction
Aleksandr Bannikov and chief engineer Vladimir Fidler.
For a very long time, the main street in Uralmash still lacked the appropriate architectural appearance and its continual development began in the 1950s.
That was when around dozens of grand, glitzy residential buildings were erected
in Soviet neoclassic style.
During the 1960s, the construction of standard residential buildings
took steam in Uralmash, as was the case all over the Union. And it was there,
in Uralmash socialist town in Kultury Street where the first five-story large-panel
building appeared in Sverdlovsk.

Photo: ba.wikipedia.org
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